Next Generation Networking and Internet

Session NGNI-01

Future Wireless Communications

1:30 PM — 3:00 PM CST
Aug 10 Mon, 1:30 AM — 3:00 AM EDT

An Oblivious Game-Theoretic Perspective of RRM in Vehicular Communications

Xianfu Chen (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland); Celimuge Wu (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan)

In this paper, we study the problem of radio resource management in a vehicle-to-vehicle communication network, which takes into account the dynamic characteristics originated from the vehicle mobility and traffic variations. Due to the limited frequency resource, each vehicle user equipment (VUE)-pair competes with other VUE-pairs in the coverage of a roadside unit (RSU) across the discrete scheduling slots with aim of optimizing its own expected long-term performance. Such non-cooperative interactions among VUE-pairs are modelled as a stochastic game. The semi-continuous state space motivates us to transform the stochastic game into an equivalent stochastic game with the definition of a partitioned control policy, for which an oblivious equilibrium (OE) is adopted to approximate the Markov perfect equilibrium. Moreover, we put forward an online reinforcement learning scheme to approach the OE solution due to the lack of a priori statistical knowledge of dynamics. Simulations validate the proposed theoretical studies.

A Hybrid Routing Algorithm in Terrestrial-Satellite Integrated Network

Huihui Xu (University of Wuhan, China); Deshi Li and Mingliu Liu (Wuhan University, China); Guangjie Han (Hohai University, China); Wei Huang (Electronic Information School, Wuhan University, China); Chan Xu (Wuhan University, China)

Due to the wide coverage of satellite networks and high bandwidth of terrestrial networks, the terrestrial-satellite integrated networks have been proposed and received much attention in both industry and academia. To this end, we propose a hybrid routing algorithm to provide seamless integration of satellite network with terrestrial networks, in which transmission path can be selected adaptively according to the traffic demands of user terminals (UTs). To minimize the end-to-end delay, we first formulate the routing problem as terrestrial-satellite routing equipments (TSEs) selection problem. Then, according to the periodical movement characteristic, a satellite routing algorithm based on two-hop Inter-Satellite Links (ISLs) is proposed, in which the transmission delay of satellite network can be predicted. Finally, to derive an optimal TSE pair, all possible delay combinations of the total link are enumerated. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid routing scheme offers good performance in terms of end-to-end delay and throughput.

A Synergic Architecture for Content Distribution in Integrated Satellite and Terrestrial Networks

Siyu Yang, Hewu Li, Zeqi Lai and Jun Liu (Tsinghua University, China)

Satellites are attracting increasing attention as novel broadband Internet access. It is a trend for satellites to enhance the content distribution efficiency in cooperation with the terrestrial network. While current studies mainly treat Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites as stable overlays by a series of snapshots, ignoring satellites' capability of cache, movement and networking. To further improve the global world content distribution efficiency in the integrated satellite and terrestrial networks, this paper proposes a synergic distribution architecture with satellites and the Content Delivery Network (CDN). The architecture takes advantage of LEOs' mobility characteristic to cache and deliver multiple times along the trajectory. The content distribution process not only involves content transfer among static nodes in the terrestrial CDN, but also mobile satellites serving as couriers. To optimize the overall bandwidth saving and reduce the distribution time, the distribution process is modeled as a maximum matching problem between target receivers and satellites' trajectory. The problem is solved with an integer linear programming. The distribution architecture is analyzed with the edge servers distribution of a CDN provider, Akamai, and an emerging satellite constellation, Starlink. The simulation results show that the distribution improves the distribution efficiency of existing CDNs with significant savings of bandwidth and delivery time. A single satellite in a cache-and-multiple-deliver manner saves tens of TBs bandwidth consumption in one revolution. And the satellite network saves 25% (40%) of bandwidth consumption in 30 (60) minutes when satellites multicast at a bottleneck rate on the ground. The distribution time is reduced by 25% in half an hour at the same time.

A Novel Resource Allocation Scheme With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Disaster Relief Networks

Zhou Su, Minghui Dai and Qichao Xu (Shanghai University, China); Ruidong Li (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan)

The growing number of natural disasters results in the infrastructure communication facing critical challenges. However, existing networks might be destroyed or overloaded in disasters, the performance of real-time response and low latency is the crucial issue in disaster relief services. Therefore, in this paper, a resource allocation scheme with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in disaster relief networks is proposed to improve the quality of experience (QoE) for user equipments (UEs). First, the network model is developed for UAVs to provide communication services in disaster area. Second, the channel allocation problem for UEs is presented to improve the throughput of UEs, and the channel allocation algorithm based on potential game for UEs is provided. Third, to incentivize UAVs and improve the efficiency of resource allocation, the incentive scheme for channel allocation is established. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the communication efficiency.

A Learnable Gauss-Seidel Detector for MIMO Detection

Qi Wang and Han Hai (Donghua University, China); KaiZhi Peng and Binbin Xu (Wuhan Maritime Communication Research Institute, China); Xueqin Jiang (Donghua University, China)

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) is a key technology due to its high spectral efficiency and data rate in communication systems. Due to the high complexity of linear Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detection, Gauss-Seidel iterative method is applied to MIMO detection as an approximate method of MMSE and achieves the effect of MMSE detection. In this paper, we propose a learnable Gauss-Seidel detector based on model-driven Deep Learning (DL) for MIMO systems. The proposed detector is designed by unfolding the Gauss-Seidel detection method. In the proposed detector, we add some parameters that can be learned to improve the detection performance. Simulation results show that the proposed detector has better detection performance than traditional Gauss-Seidel detector.

Session Chair

Jianguo Ma, Qingwen Han

Session NGNI-02

Advanced Algorithms for Next Generation Networking

3:10 PM — 4:40 PM CST
Aug 10 Mon, 3:10 AM — 4:40 AM EDT

A BPSO-based Controller Placement Algorithm for Hierarchical Service Function Chaining

Guanwen Li (Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., China); Bohao Feng (Beijing Jiaotong Unviersity, China); Fan Wu and Huachun Zhou (Beijing Jiaotong University, China)

With the emergence of hierarchical service function chaining, network providers are able to offer more flexible and scalable network functions for various requirements. However, considering scalability, how to cope with the cross-domain controller placement is still challenging, as the signaling interactions among controllers are complicated. To this end, we propose a BPSO-based algorithm in the paper, to minimize signalling costs of hierarchical controller placement. Particularly, we first formulate the controller placement of hierarchical service function chaining as an integer programming model. Then, we propose a heuristic algorithm (BPSO-HPA) to find the optimal solution. Additionally, we propose a greedy-based algorithm (G-HPA) as a benchmark for comparisons. Finally, we evaluate performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with extensive simulations. The results prove that the proposed BPSO-based algorithm is able to approximate the optimal results and outperform the greedy-based algorithm with respect to the running time.

Community Detection for Information Propagation Relying on Particle Competition

Wenzheng Li (People's Public Security University of China, China); Jingjing Wang and Yong Ren (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China); Dechun Yin and Yijun Gu (People's Public Security University of China, China)

In the process of information propagation, different communities may be formed due to different opinions, interests or hobbies. However, for the application for information propagation, targeted dynamic community detection methods have not been proposed previously. In this paper, we propose a particle competition aided community detection scheme for the sake of solving the dynamic community detection for information propagation. In comparison to traditional particle competition models, the particles in our proposed model are capable of performing the operations of walking, splitting and jumping and the domination matrix of the network changes continuously. Moreover, with the aid of combining the previous particle competition experiences as well as the defined particle's walking rules, our propose community detection scheme can automatically select and update the core nodes based on the results of previous evolution. Finally, simulation results show both the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed particle competition aided community detection model for information propagation, which may have compelling applications in the context of the spread of opinions and computer viruses, etc.

AODC: Automatic Offline Database Construction for Indoor Localization in a Hybrid UWB/Wi-Fi Environment

Huilin Jie (University of Chongqing, China); Kai Liu (Chongqing University, China); Hao Zhang (University of Chongqing, China); Ruitao Xie (University of Shenzhen, China); Weiwei Wu (Southeast University, China); Songtao Guo (Chongqing University, China)

With the rapid development of mobile terminals and the ever-expanding deployment of wireless infrastructures, the requirement of location-based services (LBS) has permeated majority industries. However, fingerprint-based localization method has a bottleneck, namely, the offline database construction is time-consuming and labor-intensive, which hampers its implementation and adaption. Moreover, the mismatch of fingerprint due to various environmental interferences during the online localization phase is another critical issue to be addressed. In view of this, we consider the fingerprint-based indoor localization in a hybrid UWB/WiFi environment, which integrates UWB and Wi-Fi to speed up the construction of offline database, while maintaining a meter-level localization accuracy.Specifically, the system does not require manual labeling efforts for reference points (RP). Instead, we propose a heterogeneous data synchronization scheme (HDSS) to integrate the RSSI data obtained by the Wi-Fi device and the corresponding coordinates obtained by UWB device. Then, an automatic radio map generation scheme (ARMGS) is proposed, which can automatically generate the fingerprints profiles of RPs. Furthermore, for the online localization, unlike traditional approaches, which estimate locations only based on features of signal space, we proposed a dual-domain constraints localization algorithm (DCLA), which takes the physical space into consideration at the same time based on mean shift clustering algorithm. Finally, we implement the prototype of AODC system and carry out extensive real-world experiments. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

Cache Pollution Prevention Mechanism based on Cache Partition in V-NDN

Jie Zhou (Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunication, China); Jiangtao Luo and LiangLang Deng (Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China); Junxia Wang (Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunication, China)

The information-centric networking, which aims to solve the demand for distributing a large amount of content on the Internet, has proved to be a promising example for various network solutions, such as the Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET). However, some problems are introduced when the named data networking is combined with V-NDN, such as the cache pollution. In order to solve the cache pollution attack, we propose a mechanism based on cache partition, which divides the cache of nodes into two parts and stores the content of different popularity respectively. We monitor the interest packets received by each node and get the corresponding popularity of each content. According to the popularity of the content, the content is stored in the corresponding cache. In addition, when the popularity of the content changes, we add the name of the content to the monitoring list to determine whether it is an attack content.

This paper simulates the cache partition mechanism under different request frequencies and different forwarding strategies. The experimental results show that the average hit rate of node cache can be increased by 14% and the user request delay can be reduced by 30% when the node is attacked. At the same time, the number of Interest packets requested by normal users in the whole network has also been greatly reduced, which greatly reduces the traffic within the network. Experiments show that the cache partition mechanism can effectively resist the attack of cache pollution.

Session Chair

Jiawen Kang, Siyuan Zhou

Session NGNI-03

Security in Future Generation Networking

4:50 PM — 6:20 PM CST
Aug 10 Mon, 4:50 AM — 6:20 AM EDT

Identity-based Secret Sharing Access Control Framework for Information-Centric Networking

LiangLang Deng and Jiangtao Luo (Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China); Jie Zhou and Junxia Wang (Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunication, China)

Information-centric networking (ICN) has played an increasingly important role in the next generation network design. However, to make better use of request-response communication mode in the ICN network, revoke user privileges more efficiently and protect user privacy more safely, an effective access control mechanism is needed. In this paper, we propose IBSS (identity-based secret sharing), which achieves efficient content distribution by using improved Shamir's secret sharing method. At the same time, collusion attacks are avoided by associating polynomials' degree with the number of users. When authenticating user identity and transmitting content, IBE and IBS are introduced to achieve more efficient and secure identity encryption. From the experimental results, the scheme only introduces an acceptable delay in file retrieval, and it can request follow-up content very efficiently.

A Security Trust Mechanism for Data Collection with Mobile Vehicles in Smart City

Qingyong Deng (XiangTan University, China); Shaobo Huang, Shujuan Tian, Haolin Liu and Jianglian Cao (Xiangtan University, China); Shuwen Jia (University of Sanya, China)

Smart city includes all kinds of advanced technologies and solutions, whose construction is based on the collection of data. In Delay Tolerant Network (DTN), sensors lacking connectivity can store data temporarily and wait for the mobile vehicles in the city to forward, which greatly improves the efficiency of data collection in the city. However, mobile vehicles are not always considered credible, the attack of malicious vehicles may lead to the failure of city management. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a security data collection strategy with mobile vehicles in DTN. In this paper, a Consistency Trust Verification strategy for Mobile Vehicles (CTV-MV) is proposed, including three stages: opportunistic routing stage, recruitment stage, and trust verification stage. Specifically, an Average Distance based Outlier Detection (ADOD) algorithm is designed as a consistency mechanism of heterogeneous data. Then a Baseline mechanism is used to trust reasoning for evaluating the trust vaule of mobile vehicles. Furthermore, a recruitment strategy that considers trust and data coverage ratio is proposed to maximize data quality as much as possible. Finally, the performance of CTV-MV is analyzed through experiments in terms of excellent ratio of data and recruit cost, respectively.

Multi-dimensional Security Risk Assessment Model Based on Three Elements in the IoT System

WenJie Kang (National University of Defense Technology, China); JiaLe Deng and PeiDong Zhu (Changsha University, China); Xuchong Liu (Hunan Police Academy, China); Wei Zhao (National University of Defense Technology & Hunan Police Academy, China); Zhi Hang (Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Mobile Business Intelligence, China)

In order to manage and control the risk of the Internet of things (IoT) system, we first propose a multi-dimensional security risk assessment model based on three elements, which evaluates the security risk from different dimensions of assets, threats and vulnerabilities. Secondly, we design the mathematical assessment model for computing risk value of IoT system and establish the mapping relationship table that the risk value is transformed into risk level. Thirdly, according to the risk level of a certain dimension of the IoT system, defenders can decide to implement the risk plan and execute the risk management until the risk level was reduced. Finally,the real data of IoT company is used to evaluate the risk level of IoT system. The research results show that the method can obtain the risk values of all measurement dimensions, which further verifies the effectiveness and practicability of the method.

HABEm: Hierarchical Attribute Based Encryption with Multi-Authority for the Mobile Cloud Service

Qian He (Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China); Jing Song (Guilin University Of Electronic Technology, China); Hong Xu and Yong Wang (Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China)

For the mobile cloud service, the computation and power resources of the mobile terminal are limited. The normal attribute-based encryption has the uncertainty of the attribute expiration time, and it may result in user privacy leakage and the waste of computing and broadband resources. To deal with these problems, a hierarchical attribute-based encryption with multi-authority for the mobile cloud service (HABEm) is proposed in this paper. A hierarchical multi-level authorization mechanism, referring to different levels of authorities, manages different attributes of mobile terminal. A proxy is introduced to delegate the high complexity decryption algorithm to improve the decryption efficiency of the mobile terminal. The mobile terminal performs attribute revocation through the authorization authority when the rank of the mobile terminal is changed. Based on the deterministic assumption of the standard model, HABEm is proved to be CPA-safe in theory. The experiment results show that HABEm has higher decryption performance and is very suitable for the mobile cloud service environment.

User Authentication Leveraging Behavioral Information using Commodity WiFi devices

Shulin Yang, Yantong Wang, Xiaoxiao Yu and Yu Gu (Hefei University of Technology, China); Fuji Ren (The University of Tokushima, Japan)

User authentication is a major area of interest within the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Meanwhile, it prevents unauthorized accesses to certain the security of data. Personal Identification Number (PIN) and biometrics are the main approaches for identifying the user on the basis of his/her identity. However, PIN can be easily leaked to others, and biometrics usually require specialized devices. In this paper, we prototype our system, a new method for user authentication by leveraging commodity WiFi. The basic methodology is to explore the typing habit of users from Channel State Information (CSI). The design and implementation of our system face two challenges, i.e. extracting keystroke features from wireless channel data and authenticating the user via typing habit from the corresponding keystroke features. For the former, we capture signal fluctuations caused by the micro movements like typing and extract the keystroke features on channel response obtained from commodity WiFi devices. For the latter, we design a computational intelligence driven mechanism to authenticate users from the corresponding keystroke feature. We prototype our system on the low-cost off-the-shelf WiFi devices and evaluate its performance in real-world experiments. We have explored four classifiers including K Nearest Neighbor(KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, and Decision Tree for recognizing users. Empirical results show that KNN provides the best performance, i.e., 85.2% authentication accuracy, 12.8% false accept rate, and 11.2% false reject rate on average over 9 participants.

Session Chair

Wenzheng Li, Licheng Wu

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